Progression of solar cycle 25

We plot here the predictions for the sunspot numbers for solar cycle 25 from the NOAA/NASA/ISES panel and from a paper by McIntosh et al. (2020) . Based on these forecasts, we have calculated the solar storm impact rates at planets and spacecraft. Please see Möstl et al. (2020) for an in-depth description of these predictions. The source code to produce these plots is also available. The sunspot data are taken from the source: WDC-SILSO, Royal Observatory of Belgium, Brussels. The first two plots are updated daily, the ones below are redone when a new version of our ICME catalog is available.

Please note that the cycle predictions can be varied additionally by choosing different cycle start times, so any match of observations and predictions should be seen as preliminary.

Sunspot numbers including predictions

ICME rate observed by spacecraft in situ in the solar wind

Prediction of the ICME rate for solar cycle 25

CME rate observed by the STEREO heliospheric imagers